The way that pay is set (by award, collective, or individual agreements) can affect the size of the gender pay gap.
For instance, among full-time employees, the average weekly total cash earnings for those who had their pay set by individual agreement are higher for men than women ($1,469.90 and $1173.00 respectively).
Similarly, earnings for employees who had their pay set by collective agreement were higher for men ($1,488.20) than women ($1252.70).
The difference in earnings, however, was significantly less for employees whose pay was set by award only ($($760.90 for men and $748.40 for women).
This suggests there is a more equal distribution of pay between women and men when pay is set by federal or state industrial authorities (award only, pay gap of -1.7%) than when it is set by agreements made collectively between employees and their employer (pay gap of 15.8%) or an individual agreement with the employer (pay gap of 20.2%).